应试利发国际技巧

一. 应试的三个步骤

英国听力教学法专家Mary Underwood根据听力理论和记忆的心理规律设计了听的三个步骤,即“听前”(pre-listening)、“听时”(while-listening)和“听后”(post-listening)。这三个步骤概括了听力理解全部过程的思维活动,它们不仅适用于平时的听力训练,也适用于应试听力的全过程。听力理解方法和技巧实际上就是这三个步骤的具体实施。

(一) 听前(pre-listening)

听力考试前必须稳定情绪,做好听音的准备工作。在放音之前,抓紧时间速读书面选择项,对可能设计的内容作出粗略的猜测和推断,同时也需进行联想,即可能会出现的内容与自己具有的相关知识联系起来,思想介入到要听的内容中去。如若选择项中出现不同的人名、地名、数字、时间或年代以及不同的动词时,必须做好强记的准备。

(二) 听时(while-listening)

听音时思想要集中,但情绪不可过度紧张。在听音中要利用预测时得到的潜在信息把握听音的重点,也可利用符号、图示等方法迅速记录要点以促进有效记忆。在听音过程中,必须眼耳并用,也就是一边用耳听,一边用眼浏览选择项进行分析和归纳,做到听与浏览相结合、听与思考及记忆相结合。这一过程必须在短暂的时间内完成。

(三) 听后(post-listening)

听完录音后要迅速意念和整理所听懂的内容,并根据书面问题选择或检验答案。要严格控制答题时间,正确答案与听力原文之间的统一性是解题的基本方法。考生要善于根据提问的形式,采用不同的解题方法。

二.力题型分析

1 问题类型

A. What...?

1)问“是什么、要什么、讨论什么、什么种类”等,如:

What is the man’s answer?

What does the woman want for lunch?

What are they talking about?

What kind of books does the man want to borrow?

2)问“做什么”,如:

What does the woman tell the man to do first?

What are the speakers doing now?

What will happen if John fails the exam?

3)问“什么含义”,如:

What does the man mean(imply)?

What does the woman's answer suggest?

4)问“从对话中能获得什么信息或结论”,如:

What can we learn from the conversation?

What can be concluded from this conversation?

5)问“对某人或某事有什么看法”,如:

What does the man think of Miss Brown?

What does the woman think of the plan?

B. Where...?

Where does this conversation most probably take place?

Where does this conversation most likely occur?

Where are the man and the woman?

C. When...?

When did the game finally start?

When will he be paid?

When will the winter vacation begin?

D. Why...?

Why is the man late?

Why did the man repair the car by himself?

E. Who...?

可能问对话者某一方的身份、对话人之间的关系或对话中涉及到的其他人的情况,如:

W: May I help you , Sir?

M: I hope so. It's my watch. I brought it in to be repaired, but I've lost the receipt.

Q: Who is the man?

F. How...?

1)问做事的方式、方法或使用的交通工具,如:

How did the teacher usually begin his class?

How does the man usually go to work?

2)问“对某事的感受如何”,如:

How does the man feel about the movie?

How do you like the film?

G. How many (much)...?

How many persons...?

How many dozens of ... does ... want?

How much does ...?

How old is ...?

How long does it take ... to...?

2 对话类型

A.时间类:包括直接型和计算型。如:

W: Your library books are due on December 13th. If you have not finished using them by then, you may renew them once.

M: Thank you very much. I only need them for a few days.

Q: When must the man return his books to the library?

B. 数字类:包括直接型和计算型。如:

W: Do you live in a college dormitory?

M: Yes, I do. It's a six-man suite, but at the moment only four of us live there.

Q: How many people share the suite now?

C. 地点类:包括直接型和含蓄型。如:

M: I need to cash this check?

W: Will you step right over to the teller's window, please?

Q: Where is the conversation most probably taking place?

D. 否定类。

此类对话既可以含有not, no, neither, nor等否定词,也有but, although等转折词,或由would rather, too...to结构及虚拟语气等表达。因此,对于后者要特别加以注意。如:

M: Ann, do you have any extra money you could loan me?

W: I wish I could help you. I went shopping yesterday. Now I have only two dollars till the end of the week.

Q: Will the man borrow any money from the woman?

此题的答案肯定是No。听这段话时要抓住I wish I could help you.这一关键话语。这句话虽然从表面上看是肯定式,但却隐含着I'm sorry I can’t help you.的意思。

E.人物类:包括人物关系、人物身份两类。

此类对话提供一个情节,能反映所涉及的人的关系或身份。如:

M: Good evening, Madam. There is a table for two over there. This way, please.

W: Thank you. Could I see the menu, please?

Q: What's the relationship between the man and woman?

F.活动类。

这一类谈话内容可涉及上课、娱乐、工作、日常生活等各种情况。如:

W: Are you going to New York next weekend?

M: Yes, I'm going to look up Bill while I'm there.

Q: What's the man going to do?

这类对话中往往先后出现几种情况,要注意听问句是什么,然后再作出选择。

3 几种常见的解题方法

这一部分的对话虽然简短,但多数情况下,往往不能从听到的内容中找到与选择项内容完全相同的部分,即对话中一般没有现成的答案。因此,在听的时候要注意抓住选择项的同义或反义词(组)用辨别法答题(解活动类多用此方法),或根据对话内容采用归纳、推论或辨别的方法回答。用这种方法答题,类型不仅仅限于诸如 “What does the man mean?” 这样的题目,其它如含蓄人物类、人物身份类、含蓄地点类、否定类题目也与此类似。如:

W: How do you like the play you saw last night?

M: Well, I should have stayed at home.

Q: What does the man think of the play?

A) It is exciting.

B) It is boring.

C) He didn’t see the play.

D) He likes it very much.

对话中 “I should have stayed at home.(我真该待在家里),这句话已婉转地表明他不喜欢这出戏,而对没有待在家里表示遗憾,后悔(should have done something这种结构可用来表示“对应该发生而实际上没有发生的事情表示遗憾、后悔或谴责”)。能使他产生此感想的原因自然是“The play is boring.”(演出令人厌烦),因而B是正确的答案。

听短文或对话,获取要求的信息:

该类题型通常是在一个段落中选出五个信息点,要求考生填空。考生在听懂原文的基础上,写下所听到的单词或词组,是目前英语高考的新题型。

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